and the Westphalian Myth Andreas Osiander The 350th anniversary of the Peace of Westphalia in 1998 was marked by a flurry of conferences and publications by historians, but it was largely ignored in the discipline of international relations (IR). The Thirty Years’ War devastated entire regions, with famine and disease significantly decreasing the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, and the Southern Netherlands. While Sweden understood this to include the tolls of all Mecklenburgian ports, the Mecklenburgian dukes as well as the emperor understood this to refer to Wismar only. Wildeshausen, a petty exclave of Bremen-Verden and fragile basis for Sweden's seat in the Westphalian circle diet, was also claimed by the Bishopric of Münster. The independence of the city of Bremen was clarified. The peace negotiations involved a total of 109 delegations representing European powers. The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement.
Philip IV of Spain was represented by a double delegation. The Peace of Westphalia was not one specific treaty but rather a collection of treaties commonly linked by the fact that they brought the Thirty Years War to an end.

"[15], In 1999, British Prime Minister Tony Blair gave a speech in Chicago where he "set out a new, post-Westphalian, 'doctrine of the international community'". The 350th anniversary of the Peace of Westphalia in 1998 was largely ignored by the discipline of international relations (IR), despite the fact that it regards that event as the beginning of the international system with which it has traditionally dealt. The majority of the Peace's terms can be attributed to the work of Cardinal Mazarin, the de facto leader of France at the time (the king, Louis XIV, being a child).


", "The Role of International Organisations in the Russia-China Relationship", "The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty-first Century Russian Foreign Policy",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles with disputed statements from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Derek Croxton, "The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty,", A. Claire Cutler, "Critical Reflections on the Westphalian Assumptions of International Law and Organization,", Andreas Osiander, "Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth,", Wael Hallaq, "The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity's Moral Predicament" (2012), This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 14:42. Vol. [7], The principle of non-interference in other countries' domestic affairs was laid out in the mid-18th century by Swiss jurist Emer de Vattel. <> with Westphalian sovereignty. The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe.

General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, and responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents. However, Ferdinand III had already started separate negotiations with the French and Dutch at Munster and with the Swedes at Osnabruck. Jackson, R.H.; P. Owens (2005) "The Evolution of World Society" in: John Baylis; Steve Smith (eds.). Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and the Electoral title that went with it. Vol. Much of the debate has turned on the ideas of internationalism and globalization, which some say conflict[how?]

[27] China and Russia have used their United Nations Security Council veto power to block what they see as American violations of state sovereignty in Syria. [9] Nonetheless, "Westphalian sovereignty" continues to be used as a shorthand for the basic legal principles underlying the modern state system. Yet others, often post-colonialist scholars, point out the limited relevance of the 1648 system to the histories and state systems in the non-Western world. The Empire and its opponent France, including the allies of each, as well as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and its opponent Spain (and their respective allies) negotiated in Münster. Since Lutheran Sweden preferred Osnabrück as a conference venue, its peace negotiations with the Empire, including the allies of both sides, took place in Osnabrück. One of its provisos was that the practice of electing a King of the Romans in the emperor’s lifetime was abolished. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. Upper Austria was restored to the Habsburgs – Bavaria had taken control of it. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster effectively ending the European wars of religion. Neoconservatism in particular has developed this line of thinking further, asserting that a lack of democracy may foreshadow future humanitarian crises, or that democracy itself constitutes a human right, and therefore states not respecting democratic principles open themselves up to just war by other countries. ", "Center for Security Studies, ETH Zürich", "Impact of the Arab Spring: Is democracy emerging as a human right in Africa? The Thirty Years War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia which was referred to as the “Peace of Exhaustion” by contemporaries. The whole package of settlements is known as the Peace of Westphalia. The Palatinate was divided between the re-established Elector Palatine Charles Louis (son and heir of Frederick V) and Elector-Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, and thus between the Protestants and Catholics.

This larger agreement was negotiated in Westphalia, in the neighbouring cities of Münster and Osnabrück.

Such occurrences happened as a show of strength to the opposition.

The title of the “Peace of Exhaustion” is probably a more apt title for this series of peace settlements that brought to an end the Thirty Years War. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination.

[7] The backdrop of this was the previously held idea that Europe was supposed to be under the umbrella of a single Christian protectorate or empire; governed spiritually by the Pope, and temporally by one rightful emperor, such as that of the Holy Roman Empire. The treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War and the Eighty Years’ War.

In several parts of the world, however, sovereign states emerged from what was once imperial territory only after the post-World War II period of decolonization. In 1642, a Swedish army defeated an Imperial army at Breitenfeld at the same time as Swedish and Imperial diplomats were examining potential peace terms.

x��Z�r���+�^ͤ����;;GQ���e�dũRy � )��Lm�?�Y���~� d$W�������8}�?6C/d3���r;��O��:�>δ��4֩�(��A�ޙ�Xz�������t/,�k>�J!��3ќ�x;�������^7ۙ���_nf�fy�5����^�?����6��ٲ��� ?�F�Ї�6� -����m��_q�nĀs���^{�̥���������w�}��08�٘���}��x�m5�p�f�|��74$��oA��/�v�j�/��/���?g �ś��_޷���Cp�%� Jo�ws��/���O�`�r� The treaties did not restore peace throughout … The treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. According to the Peace of Westphalia, all parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). Barriers to trade and commerce erected during the war were abolished, and "a degree" of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine. Neo-utilitarianism and the Social Constructivist Challenge, Rationalizing Politics: The Emerging Synthesis of International, American, and Comparative Politics. The principle underlies the modern international system of sovereign states and is enshrined in the United Nations Charter, which states that, “nothing [...] shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.”[1] According to the idea, every state, no matter how large or small, has an equal right to sovereignty.

Bavaria retained the Palatinate's vote in the Imperial Council of Electors (which elected the Holy Roman Emperor), which it had been granted by the ban on the Elector Palatine Frederick V in 1623. Masterplan. The war continued in other areas, although the heartland of the republic was no longer threatened. It was agreed that the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück would alternate between Protestant and Catholic holders, with the Protestant bishops chosen from cadets of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

The "Westphalian" doctrine of states as independent agents was bolstered by the rise in 19th-century thoughts of nationalism, under which legitimate states were assumed to correspond to nations—groups of people united by language and culture. cit., p. 267. [30] American political commentator Pat Buchanan has also spoken in favor of the traditional nation-state. [7] Henry Kissinger wrote: The Westphalian peace reflected a practical accommodation to reality, not a unique moral insight. Facing the Swedish take-over, Bremen had claimed Imperial immediacy, which was granted by the emperor and thus separated the city from the surrounding bishopric with the same name. [10] States became the primary institutional agents in an interstate system of relations.

Spain recognised the United Provinces as a sovereign state.

World cultural heritage.

A Dialogue between Law, Art and Philosophy of Science, Anarchy without society: Europe after Christendom and before sovereignty, The Transformation of International Orders, Conclusion: Humanitarian intervention in historical perspective, International Criminal Law's Millennium of Forgotten History, Dental Hygiene and Nuclear War: How International Relations Looks from Economics, What Makes the World Hang Together? for this article. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted. In 1645, Sweden and Saxony signed a peace agreement. The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. Yarbrough, Robert M.

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