Reconstruction was never forgotten within the black community and it remained a source of inspiration. ", In 1990, Eric Foner concluded that from the black point of view "Reconstruction must be judged a failure. Reconstruction also refers to the attempt to transform the 11 Southern former Confederate states, as directed by Congress, and the role of the Union states in that transformation. "[156] The Methodist Ministers Association of Boston, meeting two weeks after Lincoln's assassination, called for a hard line against the Confederate leadership: Resolved, that no terms should be made with traitors, no compromise with rebels.

These Reconstruction Amendments established the rights that led to Supreme Court rulings in the mid-20th century that struck down school segregation. Lincoln had supported a middle position: to allow some black men to vote, especially U.S. Army veterans. These historians wrote literally in terms of white and black. . By December 1864, the Lincoln plan of Reconstruction had been enacted in Louisiana and the legislature sent two senators and five representatives to take their seats in Washington. Lincoln flatly rejected recognition of the Confederacy, and said that the slaves covered by his Emancipation Proclamation would not be re-enslaved. "[207], Political violence was endemic in Louisiana. . [137], On April 20, 1871, the U.S. Congress launched a 21-member investigation committee on the status of the Southern Reconstruction states: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. They were overthrown by the Civil Rights Act of 1866 that gave the freedmen more legal equality (although still without the right to vote). [112], The 11 Southern states held constitutional conventions giving black men the right to vote,[113] where the factions divided into the Radical, conservative, and in-between delegates. Mississippi, for instance, was mostly frontier, with 90% of the bottom lands in the interior undeveloped. White elite-dominated state legislatures passed disenfranchising state constitutions from 1890 to 1908 that effectively barred most blacks and many poor whites from voting.

Federal troops were removed from the Southern states. Following Reconstruction, white Democrats and insurgent groups used force to regain power in the state legislatures, and pass laws that effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites in the South. In May Griffin . Washington.[205]. Beale called it "claptrap," arguing: "Constitutional discussions of the rights of the Negro, the status of Southern states, the legal position of ex-rebels, and the powers of Congress and the president determined nothing. [75], Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward met with three Southern representatives to discuss the peaceful Reconstruction of the Union and the Confederacy on February 3, 1865, in Hampton Roads, Virginia. In different states, Reconstruction began and ended at different times; though federal Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877. In the end, three whites died and 120–150 blacks were killed, some 50 that evening while being held as prisoners. [69] The acknowledgement of marriage by the state increased the state's recognition of freed people as legal actors and eventually helped make the case for parental rights for freed people against the practice of apprenticeship of black children.
The other state names below link to a specific section in the state history article about the Reconstruction era. [176] The taxes would serve as a market-based system for redistributing the land to the landless freedmen and white poor. Over the next several years the commission negotiated treaties with tribes that resulted in additional re-locations to Indian Territory and the de facto creation (initially by treaty) of an unorganized Oklahoma Territory. The bill did not give freedmen the right to vote. [108] There was little to no combat, but rather a state of martial law in which the military closely supervised local government, supervised elections, and tried to protect office holders and freedmen from violence. . Johnson to Gov. Grant won with 55.6% of the vote to Greeley's 43.8%. . Menu. This is especially evident in the election between Grant and Seymour (Johnson did not get the Democratic nomination), where almost 700,000 black voters voted and swayed the election 300,000 votes in Grant's favor. The Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery was ratified in 1865.

[76], Lincoln continued to advocate his Louisiana Plan as a model for all states up until his assassination on April 15, 1865. There were no trials on charges of treason. The study also found that "political murders by white supremacist groups occurred less frequently" in these counties than in Southern counties that were not occupied.[213]. William L. Sharkey, August 1865 quoted in Franklin (1961), p. 42. Southern state governments quickly enacted the restrictive "Black Codes."

As Confederate states came back under control of the U.S. Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana during the war. What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for Blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure.[5]. White Democrats controlled most of the Southern legislatures and armed militias controlled small towns and rural areas. "[10][238], At the national level, textbooks typically date the era from 1865 to 1877. Concerned that President Johnson viewed Congress as an "illegal body" and wanted to overthrow the government, Republicans in Congress took control of Reconstruction policies after the election of 1866. Passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments is the constitutional legacy of Reconstruction. The action failed by one vote in the Senate. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Historian Ralph Morrow reports: A War Department order of November 1863, applicable to the Southwestern states of the Confederacy, authorized the Northern Methodists to occupy "all houses of worship belonging to the Methodist Episcopal Church South in which a loyal minister, appointed by a loyal bishop of said church, does not officiate."[153][154][155].

Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and abolished slavery, making the newly freed slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new constitutional amendments.

[237], More recent work by Nina Silber, David W. Blight, Cecelia O'Leary, Laura Edwards, LeeAnn Whites, and Edward J. Blum has encouraged greater attention to race, religion, and issues of gender while at the same time pushing the end of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, while monographs by Charles Reagan Wilson, Gaines Foster, W. Scott Poole, and Bruce Baker have offered new views of the Southern "Lost Cause. As the Beards explained in The Rise of American Civilization (1927), the Civil War was really a: social cataclysm in which the capitalists, laborers, and farmers of the North and West drove from power in the national government the planting aristocracy of the South.[225]. [20] When freed, many made official marriages. The four border states that had not joined the Confederacy were not subject to military Reconstruction.

[163] When they gained suffrage, black politicians took this commitment to public education to state constitutional conventions. ", Historian Donald R. Shaffer maintained that the gains during Reconstruction for African Americans were not entirely extinguished. [18], The enormous cost of the Confederate war effort took a high toll on the South's economic infrastructure. "Republican Reconstruction in North Carolina: A Roll-Call Analysis of the State House of Representatives, 1866–1870. [55][60][63] Yet hundreds of thousands of freed slaves died during emancipation from illness that devastated Army regiments. Pursuing a policy of "malice toward none" announced in his second inaugural address,[25] Lincoln asked voters only to support the Union. They sought to regain political power, reestablish white supremacy, and oust the Radical Republicans. In the 1860s and 1870s, leaders who had been Whigs were committed to economic modernization, built around railroads, factories, banks, and cities. There was some fraudulent spending in the postwar years; a collapse in state credit because of huge deficits, forced the states to increase property tax rates. The act, without deference to a person's color, authorized the bureau to lease confiscated land for a period of three years and to sell it in portions of up to 40 acres (16 ha) per buyer. Weisberger, Bernard A. [129][130], Immediately upon inauguration in 1869, Grant bolstered Reconstruction by prodding Congress to readmit Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas into the Union, while ensuring their state constitutions protected every citizen's voting rights. Northern businessmen were widely divergent on monetary or tariff policy, and seldom paid attention to Reconstruction issues. Although Lincoln gave assurances that the United States government would support and protect any colonies that were established for former slaves, the leaders declined the offer of colonization. Historian Richard Hofstadter paraphrases the Beards as arguing that in victory: the Northern capitalists were able to impose their economic program, quickly passing a series of measures on tariffs, banking, homesteads, and immigration that guaranteed the success of their plans for economic development. However, Congress refused to count any of the votes from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, in essence rejecting Lincoln's moderate Reconstruction plan. [206], This marked the beginning of heightened insurgency and attacks on Republican officeholders and freedmen in Louisiana and other Deep South states.

[212] The Red Shirts were also active in North Carolina. Historian Walter Lynwood Fleming, associated with the early 20th-century Dunning School, describes the mounting anger of Southern whites: The Negro troops, even at their best, were everywhere considered offensive by the native whites.

Many blacks took an active part in voting and political life, and rapidly continued to build churches and community organizations. Indeed, the ferocious combat itself was passed over as merely an ephemeral event. The last four Southern states that fought for the confederacy were readmitted to Congress. Du Bois, in his Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880, published in 1935, compared results across the states to show achievements by the Reconstruction legislatures and to refute claims about wholesale African American control of governments. [118][119] The conventions set up systems of free public schools funded by tax dollars, but did not require them to be racially integrated. 106–107. Like the White League and White Liner rifle clubs, to which 20,000 men belonged in North Carolina alone, these groups operated as a "military arm of the Democratic Party," to restore white supremacy.[210]. Railroad building was seen as a panacea since Northern capital was needed.


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