It is very hard to determine whether a mound is man-made or natural without excavation. It is believed that over 1000 motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. The Normans introduced the design into England and Wales following their invasion in 1066. [71] Motte-and-bailey castles in Flanders were particularly numerous in the south along the Lower Rhine, a fiercely contested border. A History of the Early Medieval Siege, c.450-1200. Attackers would often find out that the keep on top of the motte was extremely hard to capture as the height of the motte and the ditch surrounding it gave its defenders significant advantages. The entrance to the fortress is by means of a bridge, which, rising from the outer side of the moat and supported on posts as it ascends, reaches to the top of the mound. One advantage is obvious. (1972) "The field archaeology of mottes in England and Wales: eine kurze übersichte," in, De Meulemeester, Johnny. [3] The castles were built by the more powerful lords of Anjou in the late 10th and 11th centuries, in particular Fulk III and his son, Geoffrey II, who built a great number of them between 987 and 1060. Those with wooden keeps rotted away, leaving a handful of odd-shaped hills scattered across the landscape – the only indicator that they ever existed. Pounds, pp.20-1; Kenyon, p.17; Meulemeester, p.104. The space on top of the mound is enclosed by a palisade of very strong hewn logs, strengthened at intervals by as many towers as their means can provide. Windsor Castle, in England, is an example of a motte and bailey castle. [10] This minimum height of 3 metres (10 feet) for mottes is usually intended to exclude smaller mounds which often had non-military purposes. [37] A popular alternative was the ringwork castle, involving a palisade being built on top of a raised earth rampart, protected by a ditch. [57] This form of castle was closely associated with the colonisation of newly cultivated areas within the Empire, as new lords were granted lands by the emperor and built castles close to the local gród, or town. With this new approach, the great era of the stone castles had begun. Where a natural hill could be used, scarping could produce a motte without the need to create an artificial mound, but more commonly much of the motte would have to be constructed by hand. School History is the largest library of history teaching and study resources on the internet. Motte-and-bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, Ireland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. Square Norman keeps built in stone became popular following the first such construction in Langeais in 994. [24] Local geography and the intent of the builder produced many unique designs. For other uses, see, Initial development, 10th and 11th centuries, Further expansion, 12th and 13th centuries, Conversion and decline, 13th–14th centuries. In-filling ringworks certainly occurred later, and may have been the initial step as well.There has been some debate over the absence of indigenous Irish castle building. Download Advantages and Disadvantages of Motte and Bailey Castles. [53] Duke William went on to prohibit the building of castles without his consent through the Consuetudines et Justicie, with his legal definition of castles centring on the classic motte-and-bailey features of ditching, banking and palisading. Some mottes were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows. The Medieval Castle in England and Wales: a social and political history. [32], The type of soil would make a difference to the design of the motte, as clay soils could support a steeper motte, whilst sandier soils meant that a motte would need a more gentle incline. The word “bailey” comes from the Norman-French “baille”, it refers to a low yard. At the end of the 12th century the Welsh rulers began to build castles in stone, primarily in the principality of North Wales and usually along the higher peaks where mottes were unnecessary. Conditions. [52] William the Conqueror, as the Duke of Normandy, is believed to have adopted the motte-and-bailey design from neighbouring Anjou. Timber also tends to rot easily, and many of these early castles ran into disrepair and were abandoned. In response, the Welsh princes and lords began to build their own castles, frequently motte-and-bailey designs, usually in wood.Motte-and-bailey castles in Scotland emerged as a consequence of the centralising of royal authority in the 12th century.Motte-and-bailey castles were introduced to Ireland following the Norman invasion of Ireland that began between 1166 and 1171 under first A small number of motte-and-bailey castles were built outside of northern Europe. Copyright © 2020 Lead Funnel Makers. Denver Sunshine State, [24] Instead of single ditches, occasionally double-ditch defences were built, as seen at Berkhamsted. [20] Over time, some mottes suffered from subsidence or damage from flooding, requiring repairs and stabilisation work. Triple J Unearthed Plays, Many of them were used as the foundations for the newly designed stone castles, and such, the motte and bailey castles morphed, and endured, for a couple of hundred years more. [69] In Flanders, the first motte and bailey castles began relatively early at the end of the 11th century. [15] Although militarily a motte was, as Norman Pounds describes it, "almost indestructible", they required frequent maintenance. [42] Against this background, various explanations have been put forward to explain the origins and spread of the motte-and-bailey design across northern Europe; there is often a tension among the academic community between explanations that stress military and social reasons for the rise of this design. Some walls would be large enough to have a wall-walk around them, and the outer walls of the motte and the wall-walk could be strengthened by filling in the gap between the wooden walls with earth and stones, allowing it to carry more weight; this was called a garillum. Vanguard Fund Performance, [98] Although wood was a more powerful defensive material than was once thought, stone became increasingly popular for military and symbolic reasons. [43] One suggestion is that these castles were built particularly in order to protect against external attack – the Angevins, it is argued, began to build them to protect against the Viking raids, and the design spread to deal with the attacks along the Slav and Hungarian frontiers. [20] Typically the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. The word “motte” is the French version of the Latin “mota”, it was an early word for “turf” and by the 12th century it was used to refer to the castle design itself. They were cheap and easy to build and didn’t require any special design. Weather Vane Terraria. Moreover, Norman designers found out that the wider the ditch was dug, the deeper and steeper the sides of the scarp could be, making it even more difficult for attackers. [66] The Norman invaders spread up the valleys, using this form of castle to occupy their new territories.

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