“We’re taking it to the next level.”. No matter where the base is sited, astronauts on a prolonged lunar mission must contend with low gravity and radiation. Scientists called the dust lunar regolith, from the Greek rhegos for “blanket” and lithos for“stone.” Back then scientists regarded the regolith as simply part of the landscape, little more than the backdrop for the planting of the American flag. Scientists are now thinking about what is needed to make the vision a reality. Although the muscle- and bone-weakening effects of low gravity won’t be a problem during the brief initial moon missions, shielding astronauts from damaging radiation exposure will be an immediate concern. This document is subject to copyright. The explorers will not only have to learn to live in reduced gravity in cramped spaces for prolonged periods, as in the carefully calibrated indoor environment of the space station, but they must also work outside for extended periods in potentially lethal environments they cannot control. It is this tantalizing potential that brings us back to Enceladus for further study. The Orionid meteor shower peaks this week! As they excavate the moon, astronauts can count on being enveloped in clouds of dust, especially if they use a sweeper. The sun and wind also drive the ocean's oscillations, but it is the moon's gravitational tug that is responsible for the lion's share of this predictable tidal flux. One promising line of inquiry for any future space missions would be to obtain samples from deposits from the period of heightened volcanic activity to see if they contained water or other possible markers of life. The plan is to send someone to the planet by 2040.

Today, the Moon is about as inhospitable to life as it gets. Those samples revealed that the moon’s makeup is similar to Earth’s. And, in the process, roughly 1020 joules of gravitational energy is shed into the oceans annually. assembled from Apollo 15 photographs, shows moon-buggy tracks on the dusty surface (below). At an average distance of 235,000 miles (380,000 kilometers), the moon is currently receding from Earth at a rate of 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) per year. But if the goal is learning about long-term stays in space, going to the moon provides excellent instruction. Taylor envisions a lunar microwave machine akin to a Zamboni that smooths the ice at a hockey game. Decorating the moon's vast lava plains are large impact-borne "mountains," the tallest of which is 3.4 miles (5.5 kilometers) high, about the size of Mount Saint Elias on the border of Alaska and Canada. The first trips will be Apollo-like sorties, brief visits to test techniques and equipment and to begin building the outpost. More details of this plan emerged last December at a meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Houston. That involved organizing their copying via cyclic assembly and dissociation. These areas likely store vast amounts of water-ice and enjoy low levels of light from the sun for several months at a time. “The next time I want to be able to say, ‘Well, here it is.’ ”.

Taylor found he could melt a pile of lunar soil in 10 to 20 seconds.Then he focused a single magnetron on another sample: “With 50 watts of energy I took a one-centimeter block of lunar soil to 1700 degrees Celsius (3100 degrees F) in 10 seconds,” he says. And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: community@space.com. He believes these lunar tides would have moved many miles inland, beyond the crashing waves driven by the sun or surface winds, and onto a vast, flat sandscape.
"So don't leave Earth for your home on the moon thinking you've left seismic activity behind," Elphic said. The eight legged creatures however need air, water and food to grow and reproduce. Climate is the main reason NASA announced last December that it would build its outpost near one of the lunar poles.

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